<!--:es-->Los diabéticos podrían ser diez veces más propensos a contraer la gripe 
… Cold Viruses Appear Linked to Type 1 Diabetes<!--:-->

Los diabéticos podrían ser diez veces más propensos a contraer la gripe … Cold Viruses Appear Linked to Type 1 Diabetes

Los enfermos de diabetes tipo 1 tendrían diez veces más probabilidad de contraer gripe, meningitis y otras enfermedades derivadas del enterovirus, informa el British Medical Journal.
Según las investigaciones realizadas por el «Instituto de Endocrinología y Diabetes» de Australia, existe una fuerte asociación entre estas infecciones, provocadas por el enterovirus, y la diabetes tipo 1.
Para demostrar este nexo, especialmente evidente en niños, los expertos revisaron hasta 24 estudios moleculares sobre enterovirus realizados en 4.448 pacientes.
En estas investigaciones se midieron los niveles de ácido ribonucleico y proteína (componentes del enterovirus) en la sangre de los sujetos diabéticos y pre-diabéticos para compararlas después con pacientes que no padecían la enfermedad.
Los resultados demostraron que los niños con diabetes tipo 1 tenían hasta diez veces más probabilidades de infectarse con el enterovirus mientras que los que padecían pre-diabetes eran tres veces más propensos a enfermar.
No obstante, los estudiosos aclaran que estos resultados no son concluyentes al no haberse demostrado una relación causa-efecto. Los expertos aclaran que no pueden descartar factores genéticos que podrían afectar la relación entre la infección y la diabetes.
En el editorial que acompaña al artículo, los profesores Didier Hober y Famara Sane de la Universidad de Lille explican que «el enterovirus y la diabetes tipo 1 están claramente relacionados pero el mecanismo está aún por descubrir».
Los estudiosos concluyen: «si se probara esta asociación, podrían desarrollarse estrategias terapéuticas y preventivas para combatir la enfermedad».

ENGLISH:

Cold Viruses Appear Linked to Type 1 Diabetes

While the causes of type 1 diabetes aren’t known for certain, a new analysis backs the possibility that cold-like viruses might trigger the disease.
Australian researchers looked at a number of studies, and concluded there is a strong association between enteroviruses and the development of type 1 diabetes. In fact, children with diabetes were 10 times more likely to have had an enterovirus infection than children without the disease.
«The finding implies that enterovirus infection is a very important cause of type 1 diabetes,» said lead researcher Dr. Maria Craig, an associate professor at Children’s Hospital at Westmead’s Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes in Sydney.
Craig noted that the idea that enteroviruses are involved in the development of type 1 diabetes is not new, but this study makes use of new data that makes the association more likely.
«It is time to look at how these viruses are involved in the disease process,» Craig said. The goal would be to find a way to «stop these viruses from contributing to diabetes — potentially leading to vaccination,» she added.
The report is published in the Feb. 3 online edition of the BMJ.
For the study, Craig’s team, using a type of research known as a meta-analysis, reviewed 24 papers and two abstracts involving 4,448 individuals to see if there was an association between type 1 diabetes and enterovirus infection.
The data suggested a strong association, especially among children, Craig said.
Type 1 diabetes is caused by a combination of genetic factors, the immune system and environmental factors, the researchers explained. And enteroviruses are common viruses in infants and children. Enteroviruses can cause cold or flu symptoms, fever, muscle aches, rash or even meningitis, they noted.
Recently, there has been a worldwide increase in the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes, especially in children under 5, which could be partially because of more exposure to these viruses, the researchers suggested.
Dr. Didier Hober, a professor of virology at University Lille in France and author of an accompanying journal editorial, said «the increased incidence rate of type 1 diabetes can be explained by a role of environmental factors, especially enteroviruses, like coxsackievirus B.»
However, it is unclear whether enteroviruses are involved in all patients or just some, he added. «Enteroviruses could act as inducers of the disease or as accelerators of the progression of the disease. A persistent infection or consecutive infections could play a role,» he said.
«The relationship between enteroviruses and type 1 diabetes opens up the possibility of developing new preventive and therapeutic strategies to fight the disease,» Hober said.
Another expert, Dr. Joel Zonszein, a professor of clinical medicine at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine’s Clinical Diabetes Center at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City, said for 40 to 50 years it has been proposed that these viruses may trigger type 1 diabetes.
«There is an association,» he said. «It doesn’t show a cause-and-effect; it shows an association. Maybe patients with type 1 diabetes are more susceptible to get these enteroviruses.»
«It’s a good reminder that we don’t know the causes of type 1 diabetes,» he added.
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body cannot produce insulin, which is essential in metabolizing sugar. The resulting extra sugar in the blood can cause serious complications, such as heart disease, kidney disease, loss of sight or limbs and an early death. The condition is controlled with doses of insulin and a diet that keep blood sugar levels in normal ranges.
In Type 2 diabetes, which is far more common, the body produces insulin but doesn’t utilize it properly. Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 is linked to overeating and under-exercising.

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